Scientists grow high-quality, single-crystal T-Nb2O5 layers for fast-charging batteries

Since the 1940s, scientists have been studying niobium oxide, specifically T-Nb2O5, for more efficient batteries. This material allows lithium ions to move quickly, leading to faster charging. The challenge lies in growing thin, high-quality films due to its complex structure and polymorphs.

In a Nature Materials paper, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, Max Planck Institute, and University of Cambridge demonstrated the growth of high-quality, single-crystal layers of T-Nb2O5. This alignment enables significantly faster movement of lithium ions, offering potential applications in fast battery charging and energy-efficient computing.

The team found a way to move lithium ions without disrupting the crystal structure, which leads to reversible and rapid movement. The T-Nb2O5 structure acts like a multilevel car-parking system, with open channels allowing the lithium ions to move up and down between levels, resulting in fast and significant changes in electrical properties.

Rappe’s team collaborated closely with researchers from the University of Cambridge, uncovering unknown transitions in T-Nb2O5’s structure as lithium ion concentration changed. These transitions caused the material to switch from an insulator to a conductor, reducing resistivity by a factor of 100 billion.

The Penn researchers utilized density functional theory calculations to theorize conditions for stability and predict material behavior. This understanding allowed them to control the electronic properties of the thin films effectively.

By manipulating phase transitions, they could reliably control the films’ electronic properties, and altering the “gate” electrode’s composition further extended potential applications.

This interdisciplinary collaboration showcased the power of atomistic simulations, advancing both academic science and industrial technologies. The research enhances our understanding of complex materials like T-Nb2O5, paving the way for a more sustainable and efficient future.

Source: University of Pennsylvania

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