Early life stress may amplify the effects of childhood head injury

In the exploration of how early-life stress compounds the effects of childhood head injuries on health and behavior, researchers uncovered surprising insights. In an animal study led by senior author Kathryn Lenz from The Ohio State University, it was found that stress induced more significant changes in gene activation in the brain than a physical … Read more

Maternal immune activation safeguards against early childhood memory loss in autism

Neuroscientists have recently uncovered an intriguing link between the preservation of early memories and the developmental trajectories of the brain, particularly in relation to autism. Most people can’t recall much from their lives before the age of two, a phenomenon known as “infantile amnesia.” It involves the apparent loss of episodic and autobiographical memories formed … Read more

Neuroscientists use tiny worm to shed light on how information flows in the brain

In recent decades, significant progress has been made in unraveling the intricate workings of the brain, a remarkably complex organ. Researchers have delved into the cellular neurobiology of the brain and have gained insights into its neural connections and constituent components. Nevertheless, numerous profound questions about the brain persist, rendering it an enduring enigma in … Read more

Researchers discover molecular basis of spinal circuitry that controls locomotion speed

Researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have made significant discoveries about the molecular logic behind the assembly of spinal circuits governing locomotion speed in adult zebrafish. Published in Nature Neuroscience, their study delves into the flexibility of motor actions and how they adapt to varying circumstances. Abdel El Manira, a professor at the Department of … Read more

New genes linked to ADHD and immune system could lead to new treatments

Researchers at the University of Surrey has shed light on the genetic underpinnings of conditions like Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their connection to the immune system, potentially paving the way for novel treatments. The research, now published in Translational Psychiatry, has also confirmed the role of the ADGRL3 gene in such conditions, providing a … Read more

Non-invasive brain stimulation technique could offer new hope for Alzheimer’s patients

Researchers at Imperial College London are pioneering a groundbreaking method for stimulating the brain, offering a promising avenue for treating brain diseases like Alzheimer’s and associated memory loss. This non-invasive approach, known as temporal interference (TI), involves delivering electrical fields to the brain via electrodes on the scalp and head. By precisely targeting the overlapping … Read more

Scientists sequence octopus genome for the first time, revealing insights into their biology and evolution

Octopuses are truly captivating creatures and serve as crucial subjects in neuroscience, cognition research, and developmental biology. To unravel the mysteries of their biology and evolutionary lineage, scientists from the University of Vienna, along with an international research team, have filled a significant void by successfully deciphering their genome. This groundbreaking study unveiled some remarkable … Read more

Teenagers with OCD experience deficits in decision making and behavioral control

A recent study conducted by UNSW Sydney sheds light on the challenges faced by teenagers dealing with OCD. The research, published in Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science, underscores the connection between OCD and deficits in decision making and behavioral control, primarily attributed to abnormal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) region of the brain. With … Read more

Study finds deep neural networks respond to irrelevant stimuli

Human sensory systems excel at recognizing objects and words, even when they’re presented in unusual ways. Deep neural networks, computational models inspired by the human brain, can also be trained to identify objects or words, but a recent MIT study found that these models sometimes respond the same way to unrelated stimuli. When these neural … Read more

New AI tool aims to revolutionize scientific discovery

An international consortium of scientists, including researchers from the University of Cambridge, has introduced a novel research collaboration, harnessing technology similar to that which powers ChatGPT. This cutting-edge AI initiative, dubbed Polymathic AI, is designed to revolutionize scientific discovery by employing AI to work with numerical data and physics simulations spanning various scientific domains, from … Read more

Ovarian hormone fluctuations shape brain structure during reproductive years

A recent study in Nature Mental Health conducted by Rachel Zsido and Julia Sacher from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences and the University Clinic in Leipzig, Germany, has unveiled the connection between cyclic changes in ovarian hormone levels in women throughout their menstrual cycle and alterations in brain structure. The … Read more

Marmoset brain study reveals new insights into prefrontal cortex connectivity

RIKEN neuroscientists have unveiled an extensive map of the marmoset brain, shedding light on how the prefrontal cortex connects with other cortical regions. This discovery holds promise for understanding and addressing neurological disorders related to the prefrontal cortex. Their groundbreaking research has been published in Neuron. Much of our knowledge about the human brain stems … Read more

Fragile X syndrome may begin before birth, new study suggests

Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, may start affecting brain cells even before birth, despite typically not being diagnosed until age 3 or later. In a new study published in the journal Neuron, researchers from the University of Wisconsin–Madison revealed that FMRP, a protein deficient in individuals with fragile X syndrome, … Read more

Healthy heart may help prevent Alzheimer’s by improving cerebrospinal fluid flow

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle through exercise and a balanced diet has long been recognized as a way to keep blood vessels flexible, which is crucial for efficient blood circulation throughout the body, including the brain. Recent research from the University of Copenhagen, as published in Nature Neuroscience, sheds light on an additional benefit of this … Read more

Neuroscientists identify brain cells that signal when sounds are unexpected

Our brains are adept at recognizing mistakes by detecting unexpected sounds, such as improperly closing a door or missing a soccer kick. While it’s well-known that our neurons identify errors, it’s been uncertain if there are specialized brain cells solely dedicated to signaling unexpected or “off” sounds. A team of neuroscientists from New York University … Read more

New study shows thalamus plays unexpectedly important role in adult brain plasticity

The cortex has long been considered the primary site of adaptability in the adult brain, but a recent study by the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience challenges this belief. Their research reveals an unexpected role played by the thalamus, a relay station for sensory and motor information. According to Christiaan Levelt, this discovery could open new … Read more

New study identifies brain region that may cause sudden death in epilepsy

Researchers have made significant progress in unraveling the mysteries of SUDEP (Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy), a rare but deadly complication of epilepsy. In the U.S., around 3,000 SUDEP-related deaths occur annually. While poorly controlled epilepsy is the most significant risk factor, the exact cause of SUDEP has long eluded scientists. However, mounting evidence suggests … Read more

Brain activity changes depending on context of action

At a pedestrian crossing, when the signal changes from “don’t walk” to “walk,” you can react in two ways: you might immediately step into the street, or you might take a moment to observe your surroundings, look left and right, ensure it’s safe, and then proceed. In both scenarios, you perceive the light change and … Read more

Jellyfish can learn from mistakes, even without a brain

A recent study from the University of Copenhagen has unveiled a surprising revelation about Caribbean box jellyfish. Despite having just one thousand nerve cells and lacking a centralized brain, these jellyfish display an unexpected level of complexity in their learning abilities, challenging our previous understanding of their cognitive capabilities. For over half a billion years, … Read more

New drug candidate shows promise for treating ALS in animal studies

A promising drug candidate for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has emerged from a collaborative effort by researchers at the University of Helsinki and their partners. The candidate, known as cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), has shown encouraging results in animal studies, prolonging lifespan and alleviating disease symptoms in rats and mice. ALS is a … Read more