CMS collaboration measures speed of sound in quark-gluon plasma with unprecedented precision

Neutron stars in the universe, ultracold atomic gases in the laboratory, and the quark–gluon plasma created in collisions of atomic nuclei at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): they may seem totally unrelated but, surprisingly enough, they have something in common. They are all a fluid-like state of matter made up of strongly interacting particles. Insights … Read more

Five new isotopes created at FRIB bring researchers closer to neutron star nuclei

At the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University, an international research team has achieved a significant milestone by creating five new isotopes, effectively bringing celestial phenomena closer to Earth. Reported in Physical Review Letters, these isotopes—thulium-182, thulium-183, ytterbium-186, ytterbium-187, and lutetium-190—mark the inaugural batch of new isotopes synthesized at FRIB, a … Read more

How do stars produce energy?

Stars are celestial bodies that emit light and heat, providing the energy that sustains life and drives the processes occurring throughout the universe. At the heart of a star lies a complex and fascinating process known as nuclear fusion, which powers the star and produces the radiant energy that we observe from Earth. Understanding how … Read more

Concept of redshift

Redshift, a fundamental concept in astronomy and cosmology, serves as a cornerstone for understanding the universe’s vastness, expansion, and evolution. It represents a phenomenon where the light emitted by celestial objects, such as galaxies, stars, and quasars, is shifted towards longer wavelengths as they move away from an observer. This phenomenon, discovered over a century … Read more

What’s a pulsar?

A pulsar is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits beams of electromagnetic radiation out of its magnetic poles. These beams of radiation are observed as periodic pulses when they intersect the Earth, giving rise to the term “pulsar.” Neutron stars are the remnants of massive stars that have undergone supernova explosions, leaving behind … Read more

First pulsar found in globular cluster

In a remarkable celestial discovery, astronomers utilizing the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) have identified a millisecond pulsar within the globular cluster GLIMPSE-C01, marking a significant milestone as the first pulsar ever detected in this particular cluster. The breakthrough emerged as part of the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE), and the … Read more

Can stars forge new matter? Unraveling the mystery of neutron star cores

Neutron-star cores stand as cosmic vaults harboring matter at densities unmatched in our present universe—up to two solar masses squeezed into a mere 25 km diameter. Picture these astrophysical marvels as colossal atomic nuclei; gravity wields its force, compressing their cores to densities surpassing individual protons and neutrons by magnitudes. These extreme densities spark intrigue … Read more

What are gravitational wave?

Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by the acceleration of massive objects, such as merging black holes or neutron stars. First predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916 as part of his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves remained elusive for decades. It wasn’t until the 21st century that scientists successfully detected … Read more

What is cosmology?

Cosmology is the scientific study of the origin, evolution, structure, and eventual fate of the universe. It is a branch of astronomy that seeks to understand the large-scale properties of the cosmos as a whole. This interdisciplinary field combines principles from physics, astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy to formulate theories and models that explain the fundamental … Read more

First stars of the universe may have produced ultra-heavy elements beyond uranium

The initial stars of the cosmos were colossal entities, consisting solely of hydrogen and helium, boasting masses potentially 300 times greater than the sun. Within these celestial giants, the inaugural heavier elements took shape, subsequently being expelled into the cosmic expanse as these stars met their brief demise. These primordial entities laid the foundation for … Read more

Fermi telescope captures 14 years of cosmic gamma-ray dance

NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope transforms the cosmos into a vibrant tapestry in a mesmerizing time-lapse spanning 14 years. Illuminating the sky with gamma rays, the film captures the sun’s rhythmic journey amid a celestial dance of high-energy phenomena. Seth Digel, a senior staff scientist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, crafted the visuals, narrating the … Read more

What is astrophysics?

Astrophysics is a branch of astronomy that applies the principles of physics and chemistry to understand the nature, behavior, and physical properties of celestial objects and phenomena. It seeks to unravel the underlying laws and processes that govern the universe, from the smallest particles to the largest cosmic structures. Astrophysicists use observational data, theoretical models, … Read more

What is astronomy?

Astronomy, one of the oldest sciences known to humanity, is a discipline that delves into the study of celestial objects, celestial phenomena, and the broader universe. It encompasses a wide range of topics, from the observation of planets and stars to the exploration of galaxies and the entire cosmos. Astronomy is not only a scientific … Read more

What is a Nebula?

A nebula is a vast, interstellar cloud of gas, dust, and plasma—a celestial region where new stars are born, and where the remnants of dead or dying stars find their final resting place. The term “nebula” is derived from the Latin word for “cloud,” reflecting the often wispy and ethereal appearance of these cosmic structures. … Read more

What are neutron stars?

Neutron stars are fascinating remnants of massive stars that have undergone supernova explosions. These celestial objects are incredibly dense, packing the mass of our Sun into a sphere roughly the size of a city. To comprehend the nature of neutron stars, we must delve into the life cycle of stars, the processes leading to supernovae, … Read more

New model unravels the mystery of gamma-ray bursts

Utilizing cutting-edge computer simulations alongside theoretical calculations, astronomers are gaining deeper insights into the origins of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), some of the universe’s most energetic phenomena. The newly proposed unified model affirms that certain prolonged GRBs result from cosmic mergers, giving rise to an infant black hole enveloped by a substantial disk of birth material. … Read more

New catalog of gamma-ray pulsars marks a milestone in pulsar research

The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the international Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration have unveiled a groundbreaking discovery – almost 300 gamma-ray pulsars showcased in their Third Catalog of Gamma Ray Pulsars. This achievement marks a significant milestone, emerging 15 years after Fermi’s launch in 2008 when the count of known gamma-ray pulsars was … Read more

Study uncovers universal law governing neutron star radio emission

An international research team, spearheaded by Michael Kramer and Kuo Liu at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has delved into the intricate realm of magnetars, uncovering a universal law that appears to govern neutron stars. These findings offer valuable insights into the mechanisms behind radio emission from these celestial sources … Read more

Record-breaking gamma-ray burst BOASTs unveiled by LHAASO

Astronomers working with The LHAASO Collaboration have made a groundbreaking discovery concerning last year’s gamma-ray burst, GRB 221009A, affectionately dubbed the Brightest of All Time (BOAT). Their study, recently reported in the journal Science Advances, involved analyzing data from the LHAASO-KM2A detector located in Sichuan, China. Gamma-ray bursts are known as the brightest explosions observable … Read more

LHC data reveals thickness of lead-208 neutron skin

Lead-208 has an intriguing nucleus. It is neutron rich, containing 82 protons and 126 neutrons. One of its more interesting properties is its structure: its center is composed of both protons and neutrons, but at its edge, there is a diffuse shell of mostly neutrons. Scientists call this the neutron “skin.” Research into the neutron … Read more