Concept of stoichiometry in chemistry

Stoichiometry is a foundational concept in chemistry that deals with the quantitative relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions. It enables chemists to predict the amounts of substances consumed and produced during a reaction, providing crucial insights into the composition and behavior of matter. In this comprehensive exploration, we will delve into the principles … Read more

Precisely placed nanoparticles enhance selectivity in catalytic reactions

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), Harvard Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, and Utrecht University have reported on a previously elusive way to improve the selectivity of catalytic reactions, adding a new method of increasing the efficacy of catalysts for a potentially wide range of applications … Read more

Green Chemistry

Green chemistry, also known as sustainable chemistry, is a rapidly growing field that focuses on designing chemical products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. It aims to reduce the environmental impact of chemical manufacturing and promote the efficient use of resources, ultimately leading to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly … Read more

Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon-containing compounds. It is a vast and diverse field with applications ranging from pharmaceuticals and materials science to agriculture and environmental science. The study of organic chemistry dates back centuries, with significant advancements made in understanding the structure, properties, and reactions of … Read more

How do stars produce energy?

Stars are celestial bodies that emit light and heat, providing the energy that sustains life and drives the processes occurring throughout the universe. At the heart of a star lies a complex and fascinating process known as nuclear fusion, which powers the star and produces the radiant energy that we observe from Earth. Understanding how … Read more

Sunlight fuels ethene production with air-loving catalyst

Prof. Polshettiwar’s group at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai has developed a novel “plasmonic reduction catalyst stable in air,” defying the common instability of reduction catalysts in the presence of air. The catalyst merges platinum-doped ruthenium clusters, with “plasmonic black gold.” This black gold efficiently harvests visible light and generates numerous hot spots … Read more

Ten electrons to rule them all: New rule simplifies catalyst design

A collaborative effort spanning four universities has uncovered a straightforward guideline known as the “ten electron rule” for designing single-atom alloy catalysts tailored for specific chemical reactions. This rule simplifies the identification of promising catalysts, allowing scientists to propose compositions by merely consulting the periodic table, bypassing the need for extensive trial-and-error experiments or computationally … Read more

How does RNA differ from DNA in terms of structure and function?

RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are both essential nucleic acids found in living cells, playing crucial roles in the storage and transmission of genetic information. Despite sharing some similarities, they exhibit key differences in terms of structure and function, reflecting their distinct roles within cellular processes. Structure At a fundamental level, both RNA … Read more

Concept of homeostasis in living organisms

Homeostasis is a fundamental concept in biology that refers to the ability of living organisms to maintain internal stability and equilibrium in the face of changing external conditions. This delicate balance is crucial for the proper functioning and survival of organisms, ensuring that essential physiological processes operate within optimal ranges. The concept of homeostasis spans … Read more

Sun-powered chemistry: Visible light turns simple ingredients into complex molecules

Heterocyclic compounds, intricate organic molecules featuring a ring structure comprising multiple elements, are increasingly coveted in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry due to their versatility and potent physiological activities. However, conventional synthesis methods often involve high temperatures, pressures, or precious metal catalysts, contributing to economic and environmental concerns. A groundbreaking study by a collaborative team … Read more

Analyzing a million galaxies unravels cosmic structure origins

Diving into the cosmic tapestry, a dedicated team of researchers meticulously scrutinized over a million galaxies, embarking on a quest to unravel the origins of the cosmic structures that grace our present-day universe. This recent exploration, detailed in a study published in Physical Review D and recognized as an Editors’ Suggestion, represents a leap forward … Read more

What is biochemistry?

Biochemistry is a branch of science that explores the chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. Combining principles from biology and chemistry, biochemistry seeks to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure, function, and regulation of biological molecules. From the intricate dance of enzymes and metabolic pathways to the decoding of genetic information … Read more

MIT develops AI model to rapidly predict structures of elusive transition states

In the intricate dance of chemical reactions, molecules undergo a subtle transformation until they reach a critical juncture known as the transition state—a fleeting moment that marks a point of no return for the reaction. Ironically, this elusive state is challenging to observe experimentally due to its ephemeral nature. Traditionally, the structures of these transition … Read more

Ruthenium nanoparticles drive cheap and efficient green hydrogen with solar power

What does it take to produce green hydrogen more efficiently and cheaply? Apparently, small ruthenium particles and a solar-powered system for water electrolysis. This is the solution proposed by a joint team involving the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology, IIT) of Genoa, and BeDimensional S.p.A. (an IIT spin-off). The technology, developed in … Read more

What is an enzyme?

An enzyme is a complex protein molecule that serves as a catalyst for biochemical reactions. These molecules play a fundamental role in various biological processes, ranging from digestion and metabolism to DNA replication and cell signaling. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, facilitating the transformation of … Read more

What role do enzymes play in biological reactions, and how are they regulated?

Enzymes are fundamental components of biological systems, serving as catalysts for a vast array of chemical reactions within living organisms. Their role is paramount in maintaining the intricate balance of biochemical processes, ensuring the efficient conversion of substrates into products. Enzymes facilitate reactions by lowering the activation energy required for a chemical transformation, thus accelerating … Read more

Plastic waste turned valuable chemicals with sunlight

A global team of experts dedicated to groundbreaking research has pioneered a method to repurpose polyethylene waste (PE), transforming it into valuable chemicals through light-driven photocatalysis. Professor Shizhang Qiao, Chair of Nanotechnology and Director of the Center for Materials in Energy and Catalysis at the School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, led the team. … Read more

Scientists switch off mechanism that inhibits hydrogen production

Microorganism-derived enzymes exhibit the potential to produce hydrogen (H2) for biobased H2 technologies. However, efficiency in hydrogen production faces challenges, including the inhibitory effects of naturally occurring formaldehyde on the highly efficient [FeFe] hydrogenase. Researchers from Ruhr University Bochum’s Photobiotechnology workgroup in Germany have successfully unraveled and mitigated this limiting mechanism, presenting their findings in … Read more

New catalyst developed for efficient hydrogen peroxide production and biomass upgrading

Researchers at the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have achieved a breakthrough in catalyst synthesis, published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Their work focuses on creating an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and biomass upgrading, with potential applications in various fields such as environment, energy, and … Read more

Enzymes revolutionize chemistry with new tools and techniques

Enzymes, serving as biocatalysts, play a pivotal role in advancing greener chemical processes, presenting promising prospects across diverse industries, spanning pharmaceuticals to environmental technology. The integration of new analytical methods, the exponential surge in data volumes, and the application of machine learning techniques have collectively propelled the evolution of biocatalysis. A collaborative effort led by … Read more