What is amino acid?

Amino acids are fundamental building blocks of proteins and play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. Understanding the structure, function, and significance of amino acids is essential for comprehending the complexity of living organisms and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their functions. Amino acids are organic molecules composed of a central carbon atom (referred to … Read more

What is the difference between DNA and RNA?

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) are two fundamental molecules essential for life as we know it. While they share similarities in their chemical composition and play crucial roles in genetic processes, they also exhibit distinct differences that are essential for understanding the complexity of biological systems. DNA, famously known as the “molecule of … Read more

Researchers develop new antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria

A new antibiotic created by Harvard researchers overcomes antimicrobial resistance mechanisms that have rendered many modern drugs ineffective and are driving a global public health crisis. A team led by Andrew Myers, Amory Houghton Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, reports in Science that their synthetic compound, cresomycin, kills many strains of drug-resistant bacteria, including … Read more

Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon-containing compounds. It is a vast and diverse field with applications ranging from pharmaceuticals and materials science to agriculture and environmental science. The study of organic chemistry dates back centuries, with significant advancements made in understanding the structure, properties, and reactions of … Read more

What type of cells lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles?

Cells lacking a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are known as prokaryotic cells. These cells represent one of the two major categories of cells, the other being eukaryotic cells, which possess a nucleus and various membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells are found in two domains of life: Bacteria and Archaea. Despite their simplicity compared to eukaryotic cells, … Read more


Antibiotics have revolutionized the field of medicine, providing effective tools to combat bacterial infections and save countless lives. These powerful medications, derived from natural sources or synthesized in laboratories, target bacteria by interfering with their growth and reproduction. The discovery of antibiotics represents one of the most significant breakthroughs in medical history, shaping the landscape … Read more


Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that has played a significant role in the treatment of bacterial infections since its discovery in the late 1940s. This antibiotic, derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria, making it effective against a wide range of bacterial species. Over the years, chloramphenicol has been widely used … Read more

Protein synthesis inhibitor

Protein synthesis inhibitors are a class of compounds that interfere with the processes involved in the synthesis of proteins within cells. These inhibitors can be of natural or synthetic origin and have diverse applications, ranging from antibiotics to cancer treatments. Understanding the mechanisms of protein synthesis inhibition provides insights into the development of therapeutic agents … Read more

Process of protein synthesis

Protein synthesis is a complex and crucial biological process that occurs within the cells of living organisms. This intricate mechanism involves the synthesis of proteins, essential molecules responsible for carrying out various functions within the body. The process of protein synthesis encompasses two main stages: transcription and translation, both of which take place in distinct … Read more

Role of the endoplasmic reticulum in cells

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a vital and multifaceted cellular organelle that plays a crucial role in the eukaryotic cell’s structure and function. It is an extensive network of membranes found in the cytoplasm, and its diverse functions contribute significantly to the overall health and stability of the cell. One of the primary functions of … Read more

What are ribosomes?

Ribosomes, often referred to as the cellular protein factories, are intricate molecular complexes that play a central role in the synthesis of proteins—a fundamental process crucial for the functioning and survival of all living organisms. These microscopic entities are essential components of cells, existing in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and their discovery has paved … Read more

Role of ribosomes in protein synthesis

Ribosomes stand as pivotal players in the intricate dance of cellular life, serving as the molecular machineries responsible for protein synthesis. This fundamental process is at the heart of cellular function, enabling the creation of the diverse array of proteins that carry out essential roles in living organisms. The role of ribosomes in protein synthesis … Read more

What is the significance of the double helix in DNA?

The double helix structure of DNA stands as one of the most iconic and consequential discoveries in the history of science. This intricate molecular configuration, resembling a twisted ladder or spiral staircase, was unraveled by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, with significant contributions from Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins. The discovery of the … Read more

How does RNA differ from DNA in terms of structure and function?

RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are both essential nucleic acids found in living cells, playing crucial roles in the storage and transmission of genetic information. Despite sharing some similarities, they exhibit key differences in terms of structure and function, reflecting their distinct roles within cellular processes. Structure At a fundamental level, both RNA … Read more

Function of ribosomes in protein synthesis

Ribosomes play a crucial role in the intricate process of protein synthesis within living cells. This fundamental cellular activity is essential for the growth, development, and maintenance of all organisms. To understand the function of ribosomes in protein synthesis, one must delve into the molecular intricacies that govern this highly orchestrated process. Protein synthesis occurs … Read more

Process of transcription in molecular biology

The process of transcription is a fundamental molecular mechanism that plays a central role in the flow of genetic information within living cells. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template, and it is a crucial step in gene expression. This intricate process involves a series of molecular events that ensure the accurate … Read more

What is the role of DNA in genetics?

The role of DNA in genetics is fundamental to our understanding of inheritance, variation, and the transmission of genetic information across generations. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, serves as the hereditary material in most living organisms, carrying the genetic instructions necessary for the development, functioning, and reproduction of cells and organisms. The exploration of this role … Read more

Cellular real estate mRNA’s location in cytoplasm affects protein production

New findings published in Molecular Cell provide details about the hidden organization of the cytoplasm—the soup of liquid, organelles, proteins, and other molecules inside a cell. The research shows it makes a big difference where in that cellular broth, messenger RNA (mRNA) gets translated into proteins. “You know the old real estate saying, ?location, location, … Read more

Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology that explores the structure, function, and interactions of molecules that make up the essential components of living organisms. It delves into the molecular mechanisms underlying various biological processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, and cellular signaling. At its core, molecular biology seeks to understand the molecular basis of … Read more


Biology is the scientific study of life and living organisms. It explores a vast range of topics, including the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living organisms. This discipline delves into various levels of biological organization, from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems. Through methods like observation, experimentation, and analysis, biologists seek … Read more