Concept of stoichiometry in chemistry

Stoichiometry is a foundational concept in chemistry that deals with the quantitative relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions. It enables chemists to predict the amounts of substances consumed and produced during a reaction, providing crucial insights into the composition and behavior of matter. In this comprehensive exploration, we will delve into the principles … Read more

Study identifies key pathways controlling leaf shape diversity in strawberries

Plant leaves come in many different shapes, sizes and complexities. Some leaves are large and smooth, while others are smaller and serrated. Some leaves grow in single pieces while others form multiple leaflets. These variations in leaf structure play a crucial role in how plants adapt—and survive—in different environments. “Plant morphology is diverse in nature,” … Read more

DNA and archaeology reveal 10,000-year connection between humans and fallow deer

Modern populations of fallow deer possess hidden cultural histories dating back to the Roman Empire, which should be factored into decisions around their management and conservation. New research, bringing together DNA analysis with archaeological insights, has revealed how fallow deer have been repeatedly moved to new territories by humans, often as a symbol of colonial … Read more

Reintroduced apex predators may not fully reverse ecosystem changes, study finds

A Colorado State University experiment spanning more than two decades has found that removal of apex predators from an ecosystem can create lasting changes that are not reversed after they return—at least, not for a very long time. The study, published in Ecological Monographs, challenges the commonly held belief that the reintroduction of wolves to … Read more

New odor trick protects plants from hungry mammals

University of Sydney researchers have shown it is possible to shield plants from the hungry maws of herbivorous mammals by fooling them with the smell of a variety they typically avoid. Findings from the study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution show tree seedlings planted next to the decoy smell solution were 20 times less … Read more

Star Wars-headed millipedes discovered in African forests

In the depths of the remote African jungles, researchers from the University of the Sunshine Coast (UniSC) have unveiled a fascinating discovery: a new genus and five previously unknown species of millipedes. Amidst the lush foliage of Tanzania’s Udzungwa Mountains, Professor Andy Marshall and his team stumbled upon these curious creatures, whose peculiar heads bear … Read more

Biotic and abiotic factors

Biotic and abiotic factors are essential components of ecosystems, shaping the dynamics of life on Earth. Understanding their interplay is crucial for comprehending the complex web of interactions that sustain life. Biotic factors encompass living organisms and their interactions, while abiotic factors comprise non-living elements that influence ecosystems. Together, they form the intricate balance necessary … Read more

Concept of coevolution

Coevolution, a captivating and intricate ecological phenomenon, lies at the intersection of biology and evolution, illuminating the interconnectedness of species within ecosystems. This concept encapsulates the dynamic and reciprocal changes that occur in two or more species as a result of their interactions over time. Coevolution is not a unidirectional process; instead, it involves a … Read more

What are ribosomes?

Ribosomes, often referred to as the cellular protein factories, are intricate molecular complexes that play a central role in the synthesis of proteins—a fundamental process crucial for the functioning and survival of all living organisms. These microscopic entities are essential components of cells, existing in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and their discovery has paved … Read more

Role of ribosomes in protein synthesis

Ribosomes stand as pivotal players in the intricate dance of cellular life, serving as the molecular machineries responsible for protein synthesis. This fundamental process is at the heart of cellular function, enabling the creation of the diverse array of proteins that carry out essential roles in living organisms. The role of ribosomes in protein synthesis … Read more

Structure and function of the nervous system

The nervous system is a complex and intricate network that plays a crucial role in coordinating and regulating the functions of the human body. Comprising the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, the nervous system serves as the body’s command center, responsible for processing information, initiating responses, and maintaining homeostasis. Understanding the structure and function … Read more

What is the significance of the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration?

The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a crucial component of cellular respiration, playing a central role in the energy production of eukaryotic cells. This cycle takes place in the mitochondria and is essential for the breakdown of nutrients, specifically carbohydrates and fatty acids, to generate … Read more

What is genetic variation?

Genetic variation is a fundamental concept in biology that refers to the diversity of genetic material within a population. It is a crucial aspect of life that underlies the adaptability and evolutionary processes of living organisms. This diversity arises from differences in the DNA sequences of individuals, leading to variations in traits, behaviors, and susceptibility … Read more

Why is biodiversity important?

Biodiversity, the rich tapestry of life on Earth, is a critical component of our planet’s health and resilience. It encompasses the variety of species, ecosystems, and genetic diversity within them. The importance of biodiversity extends far beyond its intrinsic value; it plays a crucial role in sustaining ecosystems, supporting human well-being, and maintaining the delicate … Read more

New strategy unleashes double perovskites’ hidden chirality

Chiral optical materials have garnered considerable interest across various disciplines due to their versatile applications in remote sensing, three-dimensional displays, information communication, and optical information storage. In response to the growing demand for stable and environmentally friendly materials, there is a keen anticipation surrounding two-dimensional, chiral, lead-free halide double perovskites, which are poised to exhibit … Read more

Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology that explores the structure, function, and interactions of molecules that make up the essential components of living organisms. It delves into the molecular mechanisms underlying various biological processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, and cellular signaling. At its core, molecular biology seeks to understand the molecular basis of … Read more


Biology is the scientific study of life and living organisms. It explores a vast range of topics, including the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living organisms. This discipline delves into various levels of biological organization, from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems. Through methods like observation, experimentation, and analysis, biologists seek … Read more


Chemistry, often referred to as the central science, is a branch of natural science that explores the properties, composition, structure, reactions, and changes of matter. It is a discipline that delves into the microscopic realm of atoms and molecules, seeking to understand the fundamental principles that govern the behavior of substances and their transformations. Chemistry … Read more

Small nuclear RNA

Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is a group of short RNA molecules found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Despite their modest size, snRNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of gene expression, particularly in the processes of pre-mRNA splicing and gene regulation. This class of RNA molecules is part of a larger family of non-coding … Read more

Planetary system

A planetary system, also known as a solar system, is a dynamic arrangement of celestial bodies, including planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and other objects, orbiting around a central star. The most familiar example of a planetary system is our own, the Solar System, where Earth and seven other planets orbit the Sun. The study of … Read more