RNA Polymerase

RNA polymerase is a key enzyme involved in the process of transcription, where genetic information encoded in DNA is transcribed into RNA molecules. This enzyme plays a crucial role in gene expression, as it catalyzes the synthesis of RNA strands complementary to a DNA template strand. Through its intricate structure and precise mechanism of action, … Read more

What is the difference between DNA and RNA?

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) are two fundamental molecules essential for life as we know it. While they share similarities in their chemical composition and play crucial roles in genetic processes, they also exhibit distinct differences that are essential for understanding the complexity of biological systems. DNA, famously known as the “molecule of … Read more

Genetics and environment collaborate to shape brain processing of emotions and cognition

The way our brain processes different emotional and cognitive tasks may be underpinned by common factors, find scientists from UNSW and Neuroscience Research Australia (NeuRA). In this latest study, published in the journal Human Brain Mapping, Dr. Haeme Park and Associate Professor Justine Gatt, who hold joint positions at UNSW Psychology and NeuRA, looked at … Read more

Novel plant protein fold identified for cyclic peptide formation in U-M study

University of Michigan researchers are celebrating their discovery of a new plant biochemistry and its unusual ability to form cyclic peptides—molecules that hold promise in pharmaceuticals as they can bind to challenging drug targets. Cyclic peptides are an emerging and promising area of drug research. The new study, led by U-M College of Pharmacy researchers … Read more

TYRP1-directed CAR T-cell therapy demonstrates efficacy in preclinical melanoma models

Scientists at the UCLA Health Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have built and demonstrated the potential efficacy of a new chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-based immunotherapy specifically designed to treat patients with cutaneous and rare subtypes of melanoma. CAR T-cell therapy uses genetically engineered versions of a patient’s immune cells to target and destroy cancer cells. … Read more

Study links COVID neurological symptoms to body-wide inflammation, not direct brain infection

Scientists still are not sure how neurological symptoms arise in COVID-19. Is it because SARS-CoV-2 infects the brain? Or are these symptoms the result of inflammation in the rest of the body? A study by Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin has now produced evidence to support the latter theory. It was published in the journal Nature Neuroscience. Headaches, … Read more

Bull study reveals novel genes associated with male fertility across mammals

Infertility is a widespread problem: worldwide, one in eight couples fail to fulfill their desire to have children within a year—or even at all. In half the cases, this is due to fertility disorders that stem from the male. However, it is difficult to identify the genetic causes of such fertility disorders in humans. Researchers … Read more

Study identifies key pathways controlling leaf shape diversity in strawberries

Plant leaves come in many different shapes, sizes and complexities. Some leaves are large and smooth, while others are smaller and serrated. Some leaves grow in single pieces while others form multiple leaflets. These variations in leaf structure play a crucial role in how plants adapt—and survive—in different environments. “Plant morphology is diverse in nature,” … Read more

Dogs and Horses buried with humans in ancient Italy

In the ancient community of what is now northern Italy, a fascinating discovery emerged from the depths of time: burial practices intertwining humans and animals, shedding light on enigmatic rituals and beliefs. Within the hallowed grounds of Seminario Vescovile, an archaeological site in Verona, lay the remains of 161 individuals from the third to first … Read more

Stone Age man crossed seas between societies

A fascinating glimpse into prehistoric life emerges from the study of Vittrup Man, an enigmatic figure from the Stone Age whose story unfolds along the windswept Scandinavian coast and the fertile plains of Denmark. The moniker “Vittrup Man” is bestowed upon a skeletal remnant unearthed from a peat bog in Northwest Denmark, dating back to … Read more

What type of cells lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles?

Cells lacking a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are known as prokaryotic cells. These cells represent one of the two major categories of cells, the other being eukaryotic cells, which possess a nucleus and various membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells are found in two domains of life: Bacteria and Archaea. Despite their simplicity compared to eukaryotic cells, … Read more

DNA analysis shows violent replacement of scandinavian hunter-gatherers by farmers

Following the arrival of the first farmers in Scandinavia 5,900 years ago, the hunter-gatherer population was wiped out within a few generations, according to a new study from Lund University in Sweden, among others. The results, which are contrary to prevailing opinion, are based on DNA analysis of skeletons and teeth found in what is … Read more

DNA and archaeology reveal 10,000-year connection between humans and fallow deer

Modern populations of fallow deer possess hidden cultural histories dating back to the Roman Empire, which should be factored into decisions around their management and conservation. New research, bringing together DNA analysis with archaeological insights, has revealed how fallow deer have been repeatedly moved to new territories by humans, often as a symbol of colonial … Read more

Epigenetic dysregulation in peripheral immunity linked to Alzheimer’s disease risk

A new Northwestern Medicine study has found the immune system in the blood of Alzheimer’s patients is epigenetically altered. That means the patients’ behavior or environment has caused changes that affect the way their genes work. Many of these altered immune genes are the same ones that increase an individual’s risk for Alzheimer’s. Northwestern scientists … Read more

World’s richest lower ordovician fossil site reveals ancient climate refuge in France

Paleontology enthusiasts have unearthed one of the world’s richest and most diverse fossil sites from the Lower Ordovician period (around 470 million years ago). Located in Montagne Noire, in the Hérault department of France, this deposit of over 400 fossils is distinguished by an exceptionally well-preserved fauna. In addition to shelly components, it contains extremely … Read more

Ancient lineage confirmed for “secret” dove lost for 70 years

In May 1953, Filipino ornithologist D. S. Rabor collected a single female fruit dove on the forested slopes of an active volcano on the Philippine island of Negros. The small apple-green bird, which had yellow edgings on its wings and prominent circles of bare skin around its eyes, was unlike any other known pigeon species. … Read more

Chronic circadian disruption linked to liver cancer in humanized mice

When asked about what could cause cancer, people most likely think of chemicals like tobacco or radiation such as UV light in sunshine, but chronic jet lag probably does not come to mind. Human epidemiological studies have linked chronic jet lag, also known as chronic circadian dysfunction, to increased liver cancer risk. However, direct evidence … Read more

CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing offers promise for children with rare immune disease

Some hereditary genetic defects cause an exaggerated immune response that can be fatal. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing tool, such defects can be corrected, thus normalizing the immune response, as researchers led by Klaus Rajewsky from the Max Delbrück Center now report in Science Immunology. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare disease of the immune … Read more

New protein target identified for aggressive pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer is the No. 3 cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and only 12% of patients survive five years after being diagnosed. Severe pancreatic cancer is associated with metastasis, and it is this spread of secondary tumors that usually causes death, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that drive metastasis. … Read more

iPSC model for degenerative joint disease paves way for potential treatment

About 1 in 7 adults live with degenerative joint disease, also known as osteoarthritis (OA). In recent years, as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and other joint injuries have become more common among adolescent athletes, a growing number of 20- and 30-somethings have joined the ranks of aging baby boomers living with chronic OA pain. … Read more