What is amino acid?

Amino acids are fundamental building blocks of proteins and play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. Understanding the structure, function, and significance of amino acids is essential for comprehending the complexity of living organisms and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their functions. Amino acids are organic molecules composed of a central carbon atom (referred to … Read more

Study links COVID neurological symptoms to body-wide inflammation, not direct brain infection

Scientists still are not sure how neurological symptoms arise in COVID-19. Is it because SARS-CoV-2 infects the brain? Or are these symptoms the result of inflammation in the rest of the body? A study by Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin has now produced evidence to support the latter theory. It was published in the journal Nature Neuroscience. Headaches, … Read more

Scientists 3D-print functional brain tissue for the first time

A team of University of Wisconsin–Madison scientists has developed the first 3D-printed brain tissue that can grow and function like typical brain tissue. It’s an achievement with important implications for scientists studying the brain and working on treatments for a broad range of neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. “This could … Read more

How do neurons transmit signals in the nervous system?

Neurons, the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system, play a crucial role in transmitting signals throughout the body. This intricate process involves the flow of information in the form of electrical impulses and neurotransmitters, allowing for communication between neurons and facilitating various physiological functions. Understanding the mechanisms behind neural signal transmission is essential for … Read more

Role of neurotransmitters in nerve signaling

Neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in the intricate and dynamic process of nerve signaling, facilitating communication between nerve cells or neurons within the nervous system. This intricate signaling system is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system, coordinating various physiological processes and enabling the transmission of information from one part of the body … Read more

How do neurotransmitters function in the nervous system?

Neurotransmitters are essential signaling molecules in the nervous system, playing a central role in transmitting information between neurons and facilitating communication throughout the intricate neural networks. These chemical messengers enable the transmission of signals across synapses, the junctions between neurons, allowing for the precise and rapid communication necessary for various physiological processes. Understanding how neurotransmitters … Read more

Structure and function of the nervous system

The nervous system is a complex and intricate network that plays a crucial role in coordinating and regulating the functions of the human body. Comprising the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, the nervous system serves as the body’s command center, responsible for processing information, initiating responses, and maintaining homeostasis. Understanding the structure and function … Read more

What is the structure of a neuron?

The structure of a neuron, the fundamental building block of the nervous system, is a marvel of biological complexity. Neurons are specialized cells that transmit signals throughout the body, enabling communication between different parts of the nervous system. Understanding the intricate architecture of a neuron is essential for unraveling the mechanisms behind information processing, learning, … Read more

What are hormones?

Hormones are regulatory messengers within the human body, orchestrating and coordinating various physiological processes to maintain homeostasis. These chemical substances are produced by endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to target organs, where they elicit specific responses. The endocrine system, comprising glands such as the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and pancreas, plays a pivotal role … Read more

What is biochemistry?

Biochemistry is a branch of science that explores the chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. Combining principles from biology and chemistry, biochemistry seeks to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure, function, and regulation of biological molecules. From the intricate dance of enzymes and metabolic pathways to the decoding of genetic information … Read more

What is neuropharmacology?

Neuropharmacology is a specialized field within pharmacology that focuses on the study of how drugs affect the nervous system, both in terms of normal functioning and in the context of disease. This multidisciplinary science combines elements of neuroscience, pharmacology, and psychology to understand the interactions between drugs and the complex network of cells in the … Read more

What is physiology?

Physiology, derived from the Greek words “physis” (nature) and “logos” (study), is the scientific discipline that explores the normal functioning of living organisms. It aims to understand the mechanisms that govern the various physiological processes within organisms, from the cellular level to complex organ systems. Physiology provides insights into how living organisms maintain homeostasis, respond … Read more

What is neuroscience?

Neuroscience, a multidisciplinary field of study, is dedicated to understanding the structure and function of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. This dynamic and rapidly evolving field integrates knowledge from various scientific disciplines, including biology, psychology, physics, and computer science, to unravel the complexities of the nervous system. Neuroscience … Read more

Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a complex and vital network of glands and hormones that play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes within the human body. This intricate system works in tandem with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis, ensuring the body’s internal environment remains stable despite external fluctuations. From controlling metabolism and growth … Read more

What is a placebo?

A placebo is a substance or treatment that appears identical to a real medical intervention but lacks any active component. It is often used in medical research and clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of a new treatment by comparing its results with those of a placebo. The term “placebo” is derived from the Latin … Read more

Why we value things more if we’ve put a lot of effort into them

From Ahab relentlessly pursuing Moby Dick to Wile E. Coyote’s futile chase of the Road Runner, these scenarios share a common thread with learning Latin, walking over hot coals, enduring long lines for boba tea, and splurging on luxury indulgences. They all exemplify the concept of “sunk costs” in economics—the irretrievable investment of time, money, … Read more

Scientists unveil the role of microbiome in controlling hydra’s feeding behavior

An increasingly important field of work in modern life sciences is the study of the symbiotic coexistence of animals, plants, and humans with their specific microbial populations. In recent years, researchers have gathered growing evidence that the composition and balance of the microbiome plays a decisive role in the function and health of the organism … Read more

New compound outperforms gabapentin in reversing chronic pain without side effects

The Pain Research Center at NYU College of Dentistry has achieved a significant breakthrough in the realm of pain management. Their latest research, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), highlights a promising compound identified among 27 million screened in a library of potential new drugs. This compound demonstrated the remarkable … Read more

New study reveals how endocannabinoids regulate brain’s reward circuit in response to stress

Researchers have unveiled new insights into how endocannabinoids employ signaling mechanisms to influence specific neurons in response to stress, as reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Sachin Patel, MD, Ph.D., who led the study, has shed light on how stress and anxiety impact motivation and their potential connections to the pleasurable … Read more

Researchers discover potential new way to treat obesity and diabetes

Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have identified a potential approach to combat the global rise in metabolic disorders like obesity and diabetes. Their study, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, delved into a signaling pathway in fatty tissue, which, if modified, could improve insulin function and counteract the obesity-promoting effects of a high-fat … Read more