CMS collaboration measures speed of sound in quark-gluon plasma with unprecedented precision

Neutron stars in the universe, ultracold atomic gases in the laboratory, and the quark–gluon plasma created in collisions of atomic nuclei at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): they may seem totally unrelated but, surprisingly enough, they have something in common. They are all a fluid-like state of matter made up of strongly interacting particles. Insights … Read more

Five new isotopes created at FRIB bring researchers closer to neutron star nuclei

At the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University, an international research team has achieved a significant milestone by creating five new isotopes, effectively bringing celestial phenomena closer to Earth. Reported in Physical Review Letters, these isotopes—thulium-182, thulium-183, ytterbium-186, ytterbium-187, and lutetium-190—mark the inaugural batch of new isotopes synthesized at FRIB, a … Read more

How do stars produce energy?

Stars are celestial bodies that emit light and heat, providing the energy that sustains life and drives the processes occurring throughout the universe. At the heart of a star lies a complex and fascinating process known as nuclear fusion, which powers the star and produces the radiant energy that we observe from Earth. Understanding how … Read more

Concept of redshift

Redshift, a fundamental concept in astronomy and cosmology, serves as a cornerstone for understanding the universe’s vastness, expansion, and evolution. It represents a phenomenon where the light emitted by celestial objects, such as galaxies, stars, and quasars, is shifted towards longer wavelengths as they move away from an observer. This phenomenon, discovered over a century … Read more

What’s a pulsar?

A pulsar is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits beams of electromagnetic radiation out of its magnetic poles. These beams of radiation are observed as periodic pulses when they intersect the Earth, giving rise to the term “pulsar.” Neutron stars are the remnants of massive stars that have undergone supernova explosions, leaving behind … Read more

What is the difference between an isotope and an allotrope?

Isotopes and allotropes are two distinct concepts within the realm of chemistry, each addressing different aspects of the behavior and structure of elements and compounds. Understanding the difference between isotopes and allotropes is fundamental to grasping the diverse nature of chemical elements and their various forms. Let’s begin with isotopes. Isotopes are variants of a … Read more

First pulsar found in globular cluster

In a remarkable celestial discovery, astronomers utilizing the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) have identified a millisecond pulsar within the globular cluster GLIMPSE-C01, marking a significant milestone as the first pulsar ever detected in this particular cluster. The breakthrough emerged as part of the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE), and the … Read more

Can stars forge new matter? Unraveling the mystery of neutron star cores

Neutron-star cores stand as cosmic vaults harboring matter at densities unmatched in our present universe—up to two solar masses squeezed into a mere 25 km diameter. Picture these astrophysical marvels as colossal atomic nuclei; gravity wields its force, compressing their cores to densities surpassing individual protons and neutrons by magnitudes. These extreme densities spark intrigue … Read more

What are gravitational wave?

Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by the acceleration of massive objects, such as merging black holes or neutron stars. First predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916 as part of his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves remained elusive for decades. It wasn’t until the 21st century that scientists successfully detected … Read more

How was the universe created?

The question of how the universe was created has intrigued humanity for centuries, prompting scientific, philosophical, and religious inquiries into the origins of existence. Modern cosmology, informed by a wealth of observational evidence and theoretical frameworks, provides a compelling narrative of the universe’s birth, often referred to as the Big Bang. The story begins approximately … Read more

Big Bang: Basic Concepts, Timeline of the Universe, & Importance

The Big Bang is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the observable universe’s origin and early expansion. It proposes that approximately 13.8 billion years ago, the entire cosmos existed as an extremely hot and dense singularity, a point of infinite density. Suddenly, it underwent an exponential expansion, leading to the formation of space, time, and … Read more

What is cosmology?

Cosmology is the scientific study of the origin, evolution, structure, and eventual fate of the universe. It is a branch of astronomy that seeks to understand the large-scale properties of the cosmos as a whole. This interdisciplinary field combines principles from physics, astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy to formulate theories and models that explain the fundamental … Read more

First stars of the universe may have produced ultra-heavy elements beyond uranium

The initial stars of the cosmos were colossal entities, consisting solely of hydrogen and helium, boasting masses potentially 300 times greater than the sun. Within these celestial giants, the inaugural heavier elements took shape, subsequently being expelled into the cosmic expanse as these stars met their brief demise. These primordial entities laid the foundation for … Read more

Fermi telescope captures 14 years of cosmic gamma-ray dance

NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope transforms the cosmos into a vibrant tapestry in a mesmerizing time-lapse spanning 14 years. Illuminating the sky with gamma rays, the film captures the sun’s rhythmic journey amid a celestial dance of high-energy phenomena. Seth Digel, a senior staff scientist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, crafted the visuals, narrating the … Read more

Critical clues in quark fireball freeze-out

Scientists delve into the intriguing realm of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) by orchestrating collisions between heavy nuclei in laboratories. The aftermath of these collisions births a QGP fireball, whose expansion and cooling adhere to hydrodynamics, the governing principles of fluid behavior in diverse conditions. Detectors encircling the collision meticulously observe and count emerging subatomic particles like … Read more


Chemistry, often referred to as the central science, is a branch of natural science that explores the properties, composition, structure, reactions, and changes of matter. It is a discipline that delves into the microscopic realm of atoms and molecules, seeking to understand the fundamental principles that govern the behavior of substances and their transformations. Chemistry … Read more

What is astrophysics?

Astrophysics is a branch of astronomy that applies the principles of physics and chemistry to understand the nature, behavior, and physical properties of celestial objects and phenomena. It seeks to unravel the underlying laws and processes that govern the universe, from the smallest particles to the largest cosmic structures. Astrophysicists use observational data, theoretical models, … Read more

What is astronomy?

Astronomy, one of the oldest sciences known to humanity, is a discipline that delves into the study of celestial objects, celestial phenomena, and the broader universe. It encompasses a wide range of topics, from the observation of planets and stars to the exploration of galaxies and the entire cosmos. Astronomy is not only a scientific … Read more

What is a Nebula?

A nebula is a vast, interstellar cloud of gas, dust, and plasma—a celestial region where new stars are born, and where the remnants of dead or dying stars find their final resting place. The term “nebula” is derived from the Latin word for “cloud,” reflecting the often wispy and ethereal appearance of these cosmic structures. … Read more

How does the structure of an atom influence its chemical properties?

The structure of an atom is a fundamental factor that profoundly influences its chemical properties. At the heart of understanding the behavior of atoms lies the concept of atomic structure, which encompasses the arrangement of subatomic particles—the positively charged protons, the uncharged neutrons, and the negatively charged electrons. This intricate interplay of particles within an … Read more