New strategy unleashes double perovskites’ hidden chirality

Chiral optical materials have garnered considerable interest across various disciplines due to their versatile applications in remote sensing, three-dimensional displays, information communication, and optical information storage. In response to the growing demand for stable and environmentally friendly materials, there is a keen anticipation surrounding two-dimensional, chiral, lead-free halide double perovskites, which are poised to exhibit … Read more

Heart drug shows promise in killing pancreatic cancer cells

Researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine utilized a drug screening system employing lab-grown tissues known as organoids to unearth a promising target for future pancreatic cancer treatments. The study, published in Cell Stem Cell on Dec. 26, involved testing over 6,000 compounds on pancreatic tumor organoids containing a prevalent cancer-driving mutation. Among the compounds, an existing … Read more

What is the electromagnetic spectrum?

The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuum of all electromagnetic waves, arranged according to their frequencies or wavelengths. It encompasses a vast range of phenomena, from the familiar visible light to the more exotic realms of radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. This spectrum serves as a foundational concept in physics … Read more

Big Bang: Basic Concepts, Timeline of the Universe, & Importance

The Big Bang is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the observable universe’s origin and early expansion. It proposes that approximately 13.8 billion years ago, the entire cosmos existed as an extremely hot and dense singularity, a point of infinite density. Suddenly, it underwent an exponential expansion, leading to the formation of space, time, and … Read more

First stars of the universe may have produced ultra-heavy elements beyond uranium

The initial stars of the cosmos were colossal entities, consisting solely of hydrogen and helium, boasting masses potentially 300 times greater than the sun. Within these celestial giants, the inaugural heavier elements took shape, subsequently being expelled into the cosmic expanse as these stars met their brief demise. These primordial entities laid the foundation for … Read more

Cellular real estate mRNA’s location in cytoplasm affects protein production

New findings published in Molecular Cell provide details about the hidden organization of the cytoplasm—the soup of liquid, organelles, proteins, and other molecules inside a cell. The research shows it makes a big difference where in that cellular broth, messenger RNA (mRNA) gets translated into proteins. “You know the old real estate saying, ‘location, location, … Read more

What are prostaglandins?

Prostaglandins are bioactive lipid compounds that play a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. These signaling molecules are derived from fatty acids and exhibit diverse functions, influencing inflammation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and other essential processes. Discovered in the mid-20th century, prostaglandins have since become the focus of extensive research … Read more

Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology that explores the structure, function, and interactions of molecules that make up the essential components of living organisms. It delves into the molecular mechanisms underlying various biological processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, and cellular signaling. At its core, molecular biology seeks to understand the molecular basis of … Read more

What is biochemistry?

Biochemistry is a branch of science that explores the chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. Combining principles from biology and chemistry, biochemistry seeks to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure, function, and regulation of biological molecules. From the intricate dance of enzymes and metabolic pathways to the decoding of genetic information … Read more

What is biophysics?

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary field that merges principles from physics and biology to investigate the physical mechanisms underlying biological processes. This dynamic branch of science employs quantitative and analytical approaches to unravel the mysteries of life, exploring how physical forces, energy, and structure govern the behavior of biological systems. Biophysics spans a wide range of … Read more


Biology is the scientific study of life and living organisms. It explores a vast range of topics, including the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living organisms. This discipline delves into various levels of biological organization, from molecules and cells to organisms and ecosystems. Through methods like observation, experimentation, and analysis, biologists seek … Read more


Chemistry, often referred to as the central science, is a branch of natural science that explores the properties, composition, structure, reactions, and changes of matter. It is a discipline that delves into the microscopic realm of atoms and molecules, seeking to understand the fundamental principles that govern the behavior of substances and their transformations. Chemistry … Read more

What is astrophysics?

Astrophysics is a branch of astronomy that applies the principles of physics and chemistry to understand the nature, behavior, and physical properties of celestial objects and phenomena. It seeks to unravel the underlying laws and processes that govern the universe, from the smallest particles to the largest cosmic structures. Astrophysicists use observational data, theoretical models, … Read more

MIT develops AI model to rapidly predict structures of elusive transition states

In the intricate dance of chemical reactions, molecules undergo a subtle transformation until they reach a critical juncture known as the transition state—a fleeting moment that marks a point of no return for the reaction. Ironically, this elusive state is challenging to observe experimentally due to its ephemeral nature. Traditionally, the structures of these transition … Read more

Scientists discover a new super-hard material that could rival diamond

Scientists have achieved a groundbreaking feat by unraveling a longstanding puzzle, introducing a substance that could potentially rival diamond as the hardest material on Earth. Published in the journal Advanced Materials, the research centers around carbon nitrides, which emerge when carbon and nitrogen precursors undergo extreme heat and pressure. These materials were found to be … Read more

Small nuclear RNA

Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is a group of short RNA molecules found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Despite their modest size, snRNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of gene expression, particularly in the processes of pre-mRNA splicing and gene regulation. This class of RNA molecules is part of a larger family of non-coding … Read more

SR protein

SR proteins, or serine/arginine-rich proteins, are a family of essential splicing factors that play a crucial role in the regulation of alternative splicing—a process vital for the diversity and complexity of eukaryotic proteomes. The intricate dance of splicing, the removal of non-coding introns and joining of coding exons, is orchestrated by a complex machinery, where … Read more

Primary transcript

The primary transcript is a crucial intermediate molecule in the process of gene expression, representing the initial RNA product synthesized from a DNA template during transcription. Understanding the formation and processing of primary transcripts is fundamental to unraveling the complexities of cellular biology, gene regulation, and the synthesis of functional RNA molecules. Transcription is the … Read more

Genomic DNA

Genomic DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material found within the nucleus of a cell and carries the genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth, and reproduction of all known living organisms. Understanding the structure and function of genomic DNA is fundamental to unraveling the mysteries of genetics, inheritance, and the diversity of life … Read more

Extrachromosomal DNA

Extrachromosomal DNA refers to genetic material that exists outside the chromosomes within a cell. While the majority of an organism’s genetic information is typically organized within the chromosomes in the nucleus, extrachromosomal DNA can be found in various cellular compartments, such as organelles or plasmids. Understanding the role and characteristics of extrachromosomal DNA is crucial … Read more